Japanese Army tests of Messerschmitt Bf 109 E in Japan. The wing was a low cantilever design fitted with flaps, while the canopy was enclosed, featuring retractable landing gear and a tailwheel, armed with machine guns and cannons. [27], Despite references to a Bf 109 T-0 version. [71] Up to July 1943, 1,242 G-4s were produced, with an additional four in Győr and WNF factories in the second half of 1943. BF-109 Markings 1939–1940 {Reference only}, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) and Messerschmitt, Reich Air Ministry (RLM) aircraft designations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Messerschmitt_Bf_109_variants&oldid=993996814, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, F-2 trop (tropicalized version, only as field conversion), F-2/Z (high-altitude fighter with GM-1 boost, cancelled in favour of the F-4/Z), F-4/R1 (capable of mounting two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons in underwing gondolas), F-4/R2 (dedicated recon version, 5 built), F-4/R3 (dedicated recon version, 36 built), F-4/Z (As F-4, high-altitude fighter with GM-1 boost), G-4/R3 (Long-range reconnaissance fighter, with 2 × 300 L/80 US gal underwing droptanks), G-5/U2 (High-altitude fighter with GM-1 boost), G-5/U2/R2 (High-altitude reconnaissance fighter with GM-1 boost), G-5/AS (High-altitude fighter with DB 605AS engine), G-6/R3 (Long-range reconnaissance fighter, with 2 × 300 L/80 US gal underwing droptanks), G-6/U4 (As G-6 but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108, G-6/AS (High-altitude fighter with DB 605AS engine), G-6N (Night fighter, usually with Rüstsatz VI (two underwing MG 151/20 cannons) and sometimes with, G-6/U4 N (as G-6N but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108, G-14/AS (High-altitude fighter with DB 605ASM engine, MW 50 boost), G-14/U4 (As G-14, but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108, G-10/R6 (Bad-weather fighter with PKS 12 autopilot), G-10/U4 (As G-10 but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108. Only one Bf 109Z was built, and it was never flown, having been damaged in its hangar during an Allied bombing raid in 1943. By this time, the Bf 109T was hopelessly outdated and a new fighter would be needed. A cautious estimate based on the available records suggest that about 5,500 G-14s and G-14/AS were built.[84]. The G-2, which started production in May 1942, lacked the cabin pressurization and GM-1 installation. These so-called agglomerations could be seen in several different patterns. [25] A total of 438 E-7s of all variants were built. Join us now! The lowered undercarriage could throw up mud and debris on wet airfields, potentially clogging the radiators. The Messerschmitt Bf 109, like the North American P-51, 1 might have been the plane that never was. The smaller wings had a detrimental effect on the handling so V23, Stammkennzeichen (factory Code)[Notes 1] CE+BP, W.Nr 5603, was fitted with new, semi-elliptical wingtips, becoming the standard wing planform for all future Bf 109 combat versions. In addition, the Messerschmitt’s range was severely limited by its small fuel capacity, and its closely set landing gear was prone to ground looping and collapse on muddy fields—a deficiency that cost the Luftwaffe dearly. In addition, the angled armour plate for the pilot's head was replaced by a vertical piece which sealed-off the rear of the side-hinged cockpit canopy. The engineers at the Messerschmitt facilities took two Bf 109 E-1 airframes and installed this new powerplant. The supercharger air-intake was, from the F-1 -series onwards, a rounded, "elbow"-shaped design that protruded further out into the airstream. This was a conversion of "war-weary" or rebuilt G-4 and G-6 airframes;[85][89] the space needed for the second cockpit was gained by reducing the internal fuel capacity to only 240 L (60 US gal) meaning that the 300 L (80 US gal) drop tank was employed as standard equipment. The full output was not reinstated until 8 June 1943 when Daimler-Benz issued a technical directive. Nov 22, 2020 - Explore Chris Clements's board "BF 109" on Pinterest. The Bf 109 was the mainstay of Luftwaffe fight Its end is not known. The F-1 first saw action in the Battle of Britain in October 1940 with JG 51. [21] The E-4 was also available as a fighter-bomber with equipment very similar to the previous E-1/B. ", Taylor, John W.R. "Messerschmitt Bf 109. The fourth prototype, V24 VK+AB, W.Nr 5604, flew with the clipped wings but featured a modified, "elbow"-shaped supercharger air-intake, which was eventually adopted for production, and a deeper oil cooler bath beneath the cowling. [96] Flettner tabs for the ailerons were also to be fitted to serial production aircraft to reduce control forces but were extremely rare, with the majority of the K-4s using the same aileron system as the G series.[97]. The first prototype flew in October 1935—powered by a British Rolls-Royce engine, since even the Jumo was not yet available. This aircraft became a prototype for the Bf 109X. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. It was originally intended that the wheel wells would incorporate small doors to cover the outer portion of the wheels when retracted. [53], With its initial engine rating of 1,200 PS, the maximum speed of the F-4 (and F-3) was 635 km/h (394 mph) at rated altitude; and with the clearance of the full rating of 1,350 PS, maximum speed increased to 659 km/h (410 mph) at 6,200 m (20,341 ft). The Bf 109A was the first version of the Bf 109. This weapon had been used sporadically throughout the G series as supplies permitted. Georg Genth's regular aircraft was a G-10, but on occasion he flew a K-4. Communications equipment was the FuG 7 Funkgerät 7 (radio set) short-range radio apparatus, effective to ranges of 48–56 km (30–35 mi). These were modified Bf 109G-14s, the latter with the inferior Junkers Jumo 211F engine, which resulted in an aircraft with remarkably poor handling characteristics and a tendency to crash during landings. Additional modifications included setting the main undercarriage hinges further inboard, with associated strengthening of the fuselage and modifications to the wing forward structure. Reviews from pilots who flew the Bf 109. Production lasted exactly a year between May 1941 and May 1942, with 1,841 of all F-4 variants produced. [17][18], To improve the performance of the Bf 109E, the last two real prototypes (V16 and V17) were constructed. Login Register. It had a strong engine, and a small, narrow-tread undercarriage. [citation needed][clarification needed] A small number of Bf 109 H-1s were built, flying several sorties over Britain and France. Certain production batches of the Bf 109G were fitted with aileron Flettner tabs to decrease stick forces at high speeds. Development of the airframe for the Bf 109 "Friederich"-serie had begun in 1939. Seven earlier versions (Bf 109 B, Bf 109 C, Bf 109 E) were converted to test carrier equipment. The latter system, when engaged, was capable of increasing engine output by 223 kW (300 hp) above the rated altitude to increase high-altitude performance. Due to the Messerschmitt Bf 109's versatility and time in service with the German and foreign air forces, numerous variants were produced in Germany to serve for over eight years with the Luftwaffe. The Spanish Air Force used Messerschmitts refitted with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines well into the 1960s, and the Bf 109 continued in production in Czechoslovakia after the war as the Avia 199. P-39 Airacobra versus Messerschmitt Bf 109: Airplane: P-39 Airacobra: Messerschmitt Bf 109: Country: USA: Germany: Type of aircraft: Fighter: MR Fighter: First Flight The K series was a response to the bewildering array of series, models, modification kits and factory conversions for the Bf 109, which made production and maintenance complicated and costly – something Germany could not afford late in the war. The only problems occurred during takeoff. The canopy structure was completely redesigned to incorporate a greater area of clear perspex; the welded framing for the three-panel Erla Haube design was reduced to a minimum and there was no longer a fixed rear portion, with the entire structure aft of the windscreen being hinged to swing to starboard when opened. The enlarged propeller spinner, adapted from that of the new Messerschmitt Me 210, now blended smoothly into the new engine cowling. When U.S. fighters such as the P-51 Mustang began to operate deep inside Germany with the aid of external fuel tanks in early 1944, the Bf 109’s underwing armament was abandoned in order to retain the performance essential for survival in air-to-air combat. on a taller fin/rudder unit, pilot seat or instrument panel. Field kits known as Rüstsätze were also available but those did not change the aircraft designation. As before, dihedral was 6.53°. The undercarriage legs were altered so that the wheel's vertical axis was nearly upright rather than being parallel with the oleo leg. Several aircraft were produced with an engine-mounted machine gun but it was very unreliable, most likely because of engine vibrations and overheating. [101], Power in production K-4s was supplied by the Daimler-Benz DB 605 DB/DC engine (very early K-4s used the earlier DM). The wing tips were akin to that of the Bf 109E. Several other versions were projected based on the 109K airframe – K-6, K-8, K-10 and K-14. Armour and armament were otherwise similar to the K-6.[110]. The G-8 often had only the Motorkanone engine cannon or the cowling machine guns installed, and there were several subversions for short- or long-range reconnaissance missions with a wide variety of cameras and radios available for use. Slightly thicker wing skins and reinforced spars dealt with the wing problems. Many F-1s and F-2s kept this section glazed. Erich Hartmann, the World's top scoring fighter ace, claiming 352 victories, flew only the Bf 109G, of which he said: It was very manoeuvrable, and it was easy to handle. To improve on the performance afforded by the 441–515 kW (600–700 PS) Jumo 210, the larger, longer Daimler-Benz DB 601A engine was used, yielding an extra 223 kW (300 PS) at the cost of an additional 181 kg (400 lb). Seven earlier versions (Bf 109 B, Bf 109 C, Bf 109 E) were co… The DB 605 D-2 was a development of this using the larger DB 603 supercharger. [53][57] Finally, the Erla factory produced 576 tropicalized F-4 trop in the first half of 1942. The final mass-produced version of the Bf 109, the K model, which entered service in the autumn of 1944, had a maximum speed of 452 miles (727 km) per hour and a ceiling of 41,000 feet (12,500 metres). [6] In the following V9 prototype, both wing guns were replaced by 20 mm MG FF cannons. The introduction of the WGr. A boundary layer duct allowed continual airflow to pass through the airfoil above the radiator ducting and exit from the trailing edge of the upper split flap. Wingspan 1032mm 40.6in/890mm (35.0in) Flight video. Other features of the redesigned wings included new leading edge slats, which were slightly shorter but had a slightly increased chord; and new rounded, removable wingtips which changed the planview of the wings and increased the span slightly over that of the E-series. [109] The Initial Rate of climb was 850 m (2,790 ft)/min, without MW 50 and 1,080 m (3,540 ft)/min, using MW 50. [48] The most experienced fighter aces like Werner Mölders were the first ones to fly Bf 109 F-1s in combat in October 1940. In September 1940 it was part of the DVL (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt) at Brauschweig-Völkenrode with the Stammkennzeichen code KB+II. A total of 475 examples were built between May 1943 and August 1944. [107], Using MW 50 and maximum boost the Bf 109 K-4 was the fastest 109 of World War II, reaching a maximum speed of 710 km/h (440 mph) at 7,500 m (24,600 ft) altitude. The K-4 was the only version to be mass-produced.[95]. Due to the Messerschmitt Bf 109's versatility and time in service with the German and foreign air forces, numerous variants were produced in Germany to serve for over eight years with the Luftwaffe. It was captured by Republican troops on 11 November 1937 and later transferred to the Soviet Union for a closer inspection. this version never existed. In the proposed K-6 the armament would have been two 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 above the engine, along with a 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 Motorkanone and an internally mounted MK 108 in each wing, with 45 rpg. [69] With his G-1/R2, pilot R. Klein achieved 660 km/h (420 mph) at 12,000 m (39,370 ft), and a ceiling of 13,800 m (45,275 ft).[69]. The armament of the Bf 109 F was revised and now consisted of the two synchronized 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17s with 500 rpg above the engine plus a Motorkanone cannon firing through the propeller hub. However, possibly due to the introduction of the Hurricane and Spitfire, each with eight 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns, experiments were carried out with a third machine gun firing through the propeller shaft. Two small inlet scoops for additional cooling of the spark plugs were added on both sides of the forward engine cowlings. The engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 of 1200 hp. [45] Mölders flew one of the first operational Bf 109 F-1s over England from early October 1940; he may well have been credited with shooting down eight Hurricanes and four Spitfires while flying W.No 5628, Stammkennzeichen SG+GW between 11 and 29 October 1940. Updates? The resulting design was a small, angular low-wing monoplane with closely set main landing gear that retracted outward into the wings. Pg. Takeoff weight was 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). [36] Underneath the cowling was a revised, more streamlined oil cooler radiator and fairing. These received some structural improvements and more powerful armament. Internally, the oxygen bottles were relocated from the rear fuselage to the right wing. It was commonly referred to as the Me 109 after its designer, Willy Messerschmitt. The wings and airframes arrived but not the engines, so the Spanish installed the French Hispano-Suiza engine, and then fitted Rolls-Royce Merlins as late as 1956. According to RLM documentation 22 aircraft were ordered and delivered with V4 as the A-series prototype. This tail unit was standardised on G-10s and K-4s. Alternatively, the wing MK 108s could be substituted by 20 mm MG 151/20s, with 100 rpg. Visible changes included engine, cockpit and machine gun ventilation holes/slats, and the location of the oil cooler was changed several times to prevent overheating. 1944 MESSERSCHMITT BF-109G-14. Variants included the D-0 and D-1 models, both having a Junkers Jumo 210D engine and armed with two wing-mounted and two nose-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17s. Some 35,000 Bf 109s were manufactured in all, more than double the number of any other Axis aircraft. The Messerschmitt Bf 109, often called Me 109 , was a German World War II fighter aircraft. The former were capable of carrying two 300 L (80 US gal) drop tanks, one under each wing; and the latter received pressurized cockpits for pilot comfort and GM-1 nitrous oxide "boost" for high altitudes. To incorporate these the outer wheel bays were squared off. The following variants of the G-5 and G-6 were produced: One offensive weapons upgrade in 1943 for the Bf 109G — and also used for the Fw 190A — was one that mounted the Werfer-Granate 21 heavy calibre rocket weapon system with one launching tube under each wing panel. Messerschmitt 109 – myths versus facts. 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